Doug Henderson, Fitzgerald Veira, and Brooks Smith’s article, The Clean Water Act Permit Shield—Recent Battles, appeared in the ABA’s environmental journal, Natural Resources & Environment.   Surveying one of the most important defenses under the Clean Water Act, the “permit shield” defense, the article takes a critical look at several recent interpretations by the Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, and Ninth Circuits, concluding that, while the defense is never sure-fire, it is still viable and available to defendants in a variety of settings.