On August 15, 2017, EPA issued non-binding guidance providing insight of EPA’s expectations for states to assume regulation authority over coal combustion residuals (CCRs). Comments on this guidance are due September 14, 2017. Under the Water Infrastructure and Improvements for the Nation Act, states may develop their own CCR permit programs that are “at least as protective” as the federal CCR rule. EPA must review these programs at least every 12 years. Upon the submission of a program application by a state, EPA will have 180 days to act, which includes a period of public notice and comment. States may choose not to submit such a program, and instead opt to remain under the federal scheme.